Different asset classes have different ways to account for the value of their assets. Because any asset can be put on several users, it is important to use perspective in deciding how the investor intends to use the asset. It is in the use of an asset that gives it different values that the market is constantly trying to reevaluate in light of changing economic circumstances.
Mark to Market
The most important financial accounting technique, mark to market immediately tells the investor if he has a profit or less on his investment. This financial accounting technique is basic: you look at the last trade in a security and assume that the next trade will be close to the same value, risking the possibility of market news changing the asset’s worth.
Mark to Model Accounting
This financial accounting presumes that investments regularly trade and are interchangeable. For assets that do not regularly trade, a theoretical value is worked up with the use of various scenarios of valuation. Much risk premium should be added for the uncertainty of using this financial accounting technique, as its logic might be outdated or wrong.
Investors looking at balance sheets or organizations are constantly facing statement of values when the values are predicated on events that might not have occurred just yet. Accrual accounting reflects the difference between when a sale is made and the receipt of the cash statement. This financial accounting technique is a basic concept of balance sheet analysis.
Financial accounting for bonds goes beyond their value on a given date. Credit variations or interest rate changes both affect bond values. Also, optional calls or mandatory calls can affect price. Accounting procedures are made to stress test the value of bonds. Results are then tested, measured and blended by statistical measures in a worst case scenario.
Cost accounting the most ethical of all financial accounting techniques used in business, but its misapplication can lead to catastrophic mistakes. This financial accounting technique refers to the allocation of costs in the production of assets. It can be as simple as deciding the length of amortization to depreciate assets or the company at large.